Renewable aluminum industry has the advantages of saving resources, energy and protecting the environment. It is an important way for the sustainable development of aluminum industry. Especially under the situation of the lack of bauxite resources in China, the state vigorously promotes energy conservation and emission reduction, green development and the implementation of the strategy of "carbon peak and carbon neutralization", the development of renewable aluminum industry is of more significance.
1、 Main achievements in the development of China's recycled aluminum industry
Since the reform and opening up, after 40 years of development, the supply of recycled aluminum raw materials in China has been increasing and the industrial scale has been expanding. During the 13th Five Year Plan period, industrial transformation and upgrading accelerated, China's recycled aluminum industry basically completed the transformation from labor-intensive to technology intensive, the output continued to increase, the products were widely used in transportation, construction, hardware manufacturing, machinery and other industries, and remarkable results were achieved in the coordinated development of upstream and downstream industries. At the same time, the technical level of recycled aluminum industry has been significantly improved, and the supporting systems related to equipment manufacturing, warehousing and logistics, auxiliary material supply and so on have been continuously improved. China's recycled aluminum industry has become an important field of national circular economy and has an increasing influence on global aluminum recycling.
Raw material recycling channels have been continuously improved and the industrial scale has been continuously expanded. At present, among recycled aluminum raw materials, domestic recycled waste aluminum accounts for 89%, and the pattern dominated by domestic raw materials is more prominent; The national capacity of recycled aluminum has reached about 14 million tons, accounting for about 30% of the total amount of recycled aluminum in the world, and has become the largest country of recycled aluminum in the world; The industry presents a "columnar" distribution with an obvious trend of balanced development; Large scale recycling enterprises have gradually become an important supply channel of waste aluminum, and the industrial concentration has continued to improve;
Pretreatment technology has been significantly improved, forming proprietary technology and industrial characteristics. The comparison of key production indicators of digital workshop information system in some recycled aluminum enterprises has achieved remarkable results, the industrial design and equipment manufacturing capacity are also improving, and the automatic pretreatment process has made great progress; Advanced flue gas dust removal equipment has been widely used, dioxin treatment technology and nitrogen oxide treatment technology have also been popularized, and good environmental protection results have been achieved; The leading enterprises have actively increased R & D investment and trained a group of experienced technical workers;
The product quality has been steadily improved and the application field has been continuously expanded. China's recycled aluminum products not only increase in the application field and scale of the domestic market, but also occupy a large share in the international market; With the continuous improvement of pretreatment technology and smelting technology, the quality of recycled wrought aluminum alloy in China has been improved, and the output and consumption have also increased to a certain extent.
The cycle of green resources has accelerated, and remarkable results have been achieved in energy conservation and carbon reduction. During the 13th Five Year Plan period, China's total output of recycled aluminum was about 34.8 million tons. Compared with the production of electrolytic aluminum of the same amount, it reduced the mining of aluminum ore by 139.2 million tons, saved 120 million tons of standard coal, saved 770 million cubic meters, reduced the emission of carbon dioxide by 380 million tons, and reduced the emission of solid waste by 696 million tons.
2、 Main problems in the development of recycled aluminum industry in China
China's recycled aluminum has made great achievements in the past period of time, but we should also clearly see that the proportion of China's recycled aluminum output in the total aluminum output is still at the level of developed countries in the 1980s. At present, the overall level and capacity of China's recycled aluminum industry are still difficult to meet the needs of industrial upgrading and green and high-quality development.
The industrial support system still needs to be improved. There is a lack of top-level design and overall planning for industrial development, value-added tax and income tax policies need to be improved, the construction of standards and norms started late, and vocational skills need to be improved urgently.
The guarantee degree of raw materials needs to be improved. The domestic raw material recycling mode needs to be improved, and the advantages of international raw material procurement have been weakened.
Insufficient R & D investment and weak basic research. There is a lack of professional and standardized recycled aluminum engineering design and research institutions, there is no national recycled aluminum technology center, and the technological innovation system of "enterprise as the main body, market-oriented and deep integration of industry, University and research" is not perfect.
The proportion of high-value utilization of products is relatively low. The added value of products needs to be improved, the manufacturing cost of enterprises is rising, and the ability of enterprise financing and anti risk is weak.
The understanding of recycled aluminum needs to be improved. For a long time, the social understanding level of recycled metal industry has remained at a low level, the social recognition of recycled metal products needs to be improved, and the social and environmental benefits of the industry have not been widely recognized.